Scientificlive appreciate your participation in this Conference. Every Conference is divided into several sessions of subfields. Select the Subfield of your choice please.
Organic Chemistry has made its advances into pharmaceuticals, plastics, food industry, paints, cosmetics, petrochemicals, explosives and many more products. Organic chemistry is concerned with the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation of carbon-containing compounds, nitrogen, oxygen, halogens, phosphorus, silicon, and sulfur. It has also made rapid advances in organic synthesis like photocatalytic synthesis, flow chemistry, advanced microwave technology, use of advanced nanomaterials in organic synthesis, catalysts-free processes, enhanced greener technologies in organic methods such as water, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2), polyethylene glycol (PEG), ionic liquid, glycerol etc. Organic Chemistry develops new synthetic methods for complex organic molecules, polymeric materials, organocatalysis, and synthesis of natural and non-natural products study and to focus on advanced greener technologies. This session discusses more about organic chemistry.
Inorganic Chemistry is concerned with the studies on synthesis and behaviuor of inorganic and organometallic compounds, but has nothing to do with organic compounds and carbon-based compounds. Inorganic Chemistry focuses on properties and reactivity of all chemical elements. Advanced developments in inorganic chemistry include role of metals in biology and its effect on environment. Inorganic Chemistry also focuses on advanced studies in the synthetic efforts on hydrogen storage materials including thermoelectric; catalysts for solar hydrogen generation; reactivity of main group and transitional elements; molecular geometry; bioinorganic and solid state; the impact of nanotechnology in inorganic chemistry include nanowires and nanoparticles. This session discusses more about inorganic chemistry and how it complements coordination chemistry.
Medicinal chemistry is a branch or subfield of chemistry especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties. Medicinal Chemistry involves the processes of design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules drugs. it involves chemical aspects of identification, and then systematic, thorough synthetic alteration of new chemical entities to make them suitable for therapeutic use. It includes synthetic and computational aspects of the study of existing drugs and agents in development in relation to their bioactivities like biological activities and properties that understands their Structure Activity Relationships (SAR). Medicinal chemistry focuses on small organic molecules and encompasses synthetic organic chemistry and aspects of natural products and computational chemistry in close combination with chemical biology, enzymology and structural biology, together aiming at the discovery and development of new therapeutic agents. This session discusses more about Medicinal Chemistry.
Physical chemistry is concerned with the application of the concepts and theories of physics to the analysis of the chemical properties and reactive behavior of matter. While also at the interface between physics and chemistry, it is distinct from chemical physics. Physical chemistry involves the study of principles of physics and chemistry to study the physical characteristics and properties of molecules. Physical Chemistry studies how molecules or atoms combine to form particular molecules. It also deals with the studies how different properties of matter such as why a compound burns or about its ability to convert from a liquid to solid substance; and how molecules are put together, and how the actual structure of a chemical is impacted by these properties. Physical Chemistry indeed paves the way for discovery of new theories. This session discusses more about physical chemistry
Analytical chemistry deals with the study of instruments usage and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter. Analytical chemistry consists of classical, wet chemical methods and modern, instrumental methods. It constitutes the entire analysis of practice, separation, identification or quantification or combined with another method. Separation isolates analytes. Qualitative analysis identifies analytes, while quantitative analysis determines the numerical amount or concentration. Classical qualitative methods use separations such as precipitation, extraction, and distillation. Identification may be based on differences in color, odor, melting point, boiling point, radioactivity or reactivity. Analytical chemistry focuses on improvements in experimental design, chemometrics, and the creation of new measurement tools. This session discusses more about analytical chemistry
Biochemistry deals with the studies of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. Biochemistry focuses on understanding how biological molecules give rise to the processes that occur within living cells and between cells, which in turn relates greatly to the study and understanding of tissues, organs, and organism structure and function. Biochemistry is divided into three fields such as molecular genetics, protein science, and metabolism. Almost all areas of the life sciences, like botany, medicine and genetics are being uncovered and developed by biochemical methodology and research. Biochemistry is closely related to molecular biology, the study of the molecular mechanisms by which genetic information encoded in DNA is able to result in the processes of life. This session discusses more about biochemistry.
Chemical engineering focuses on studies on principles of chemistry, physics, mathematics and economics to efficiently use, produce, transform, and transport chemicals, materials and energy. Chemical engineering focuses on designing large-scale processes that convert chemicals, raw materials, living cells, microorganisms and energy into useful forms and products. Chemical engineering also deals with several aspects of plant design and operation, including safety and hazard assessments, process design and analysis, control engineering, chemical reaction engineering, construction specification and operating instructions. Advances in chemical engineering is through computer science applications, designing, managing plants, simplifying calculations and drawings that previously had to be done manually. Chemical Engineering has also played a key role in the completion of the Human Genome Project but genetic engineering and genomics as well. Chemical engineering principles were used to produce DNA sequences in large quantities. This session discusses more about chemical engineering.
Polymer chemistry encompasses polymer physics and polymer engineering. Polymer chemistry is a chemistry subfield that deals with the chemical, structures, synthesis, and properties of polymers, primarily synthetic polymers such as plastics and elastomers. Polymer chemistry traditionally focuses on organic compounds. Polymer Chemistry deals with chemical synthesis and chemical properties of polymers which are known as macromolecules. Biopolymers too have a major role in our lives dealing with proteins, DNA as such. Therefore we can see how Polymer Chemistry is influencing and playing a major role in improvising the quality of life enhancing our living standards in an eco-friendly manner. This session discusses more about polymer chemistry.
Environmental chemistry deals with the study of chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places. Environmental chemistry is an interdisciplinary science that includes atmospheric, aquatic and soil chemistry, as well as heavily relying on analytical chemistry and being related to environmental and other areas of science. Environmental chemistry can be defined as the study of the sources, reactions, transport, effects, and fates of chemical species in the air, soil, and water environments; and the effect of human activity and biological activity on these. Environmental chemistry is the study of chemical processes that occur in water, air, terrestrial and living environments, and the effects of human activity on them. This session discusses more about environmental chemistry.
Industrial Chemistry focuses on the aspects of design and manufacturing process. Industrial chemistry deals with the ideas, the design, the testing, and prototyping of new industrial products. For this in-depth knowledge and application of chemistry and creativity with chemicals is what is needed. Engineering chemistry deals with the whole process of changing raw materials into a useful, marketable product. Engineering Chemistry further deal with chemical components and designing a product keeping in mind the safety and efficiency of the products made of important chemicals and materials. Industrial Chemistry involves other subfields like petrochemicals, polymers, plastics food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, minerals and new materials. This session discusses more about Industrial and Engineering Chemistry.
Marine geochemistry is an applied science that focuses on assisting the coastal and marine management. Nutrient and carbon concentrations are used frequently to assess and evaluate water quality in estuaries and coasts. The analysis of chemical components in sediment cores from estuaries allows reconstruction of changes in land-use in the catchment and the gradual enrichment of nutrients. This is referred to as eutrophication. Marine geochemistry is increasingly used to assess and predict the impacts of climate change such as the ocean increasingly adsorbs atmospheric carbon dioxide, which leads to ocean acidification, and in turn a slowdown in the production of calcium carbonate by marine organisms. Marine geochemistry plays a key role in vulnerability assessments of marine ecosystems such as coral reefs. This session discusses more about marine and geo chemistry.
Green Chemistry attempts to reduce the environmental impact of the chemical enterprise by developing a technology base that is inherently non-toxic to living things and the environment. Green chemistry takes up innovative technology to establish industrial procedures. It enables the design of newer, greener and safer chemicals and materials; the use of sustainable resources; the use of biotechnology alternatives to chemistry-based solutions. It creates methodologies and tools for measuring environmental impact and application to real world examples. Renewable resources are a part of Earth's natural environment and the largest components of its ecosphere. It is a renewable resource is a natural resource which replenishes resource depletion caused by usage and consumption, either through biological reproduction or other naturally recurring processes in a finite amount of time in a human time scale. This session discusses more about green chemistry and renewable resources.
Forensic Chemistry is the application of chemistry and its subfield. A forensic chemistry deals with the identification of unknown materials found at a crime scene. Specialists in this field have a wide array of methods and instruments to help identify unknown substances. These include high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, atomic absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thin layer chromatography. The range of different methods is important due to the destructive nature of some instruments and the number of possible unknown substances that can be found at a scene. Forensic chemistry prefers using nondestructive methods first to preserve evidence and to determine which destructive methods will produce the best results. This session discusses more about forensic chemistry.
Traditional chemical reactions occur as a result of the interaction between valence electrons around an atom's nucleus. Nuclear Chemistry is the subfield of chemistry. Nuclear chemistry is concerned with the changes in nucleus of elements. The contribution of nuclear chemistry is concerned with high demands for SPECT analysis in radiopharmaceuticals, study of DNA, genetic engineering, good use in clinical applications such as psychiatric disorders study, advanced computer based image analyses techniques, development of nuclear energy, integrating X-ray tomography into SPECT, which is considered the diagnostic machine in medical imaging and several other technologies that has revolutionized nations across the world. This session discusses more about nuclear chemistry.
Quantum chemistry is the application of quantum mechanical principles and equations to the study of molecules. In order to understand matter at its most fundamental level, we must use quantum mechanical models and methods. Quantum chemical theories allow us to explain the structure of the periodic table, and quantum chemical calculations allow us to accurately predict the structures of molecules and the spectroscopic behavior of atoms and molecules. There are two aspects of quantum mechanics that make it different from previous models of matter. The first is the concept of wave-particle duality that is the notion that we need to think of very small objects as having characteristics of both particles and waves. The second is quantum mechanical models correctly predict that the energy of atoms and molecules is always quantized, meaning that they may have only specific amounts of energy. This session discusses more about quantum chemistry
Synthetic Chemistry deals with the studies of synthesis chemicals that create new forms of matter. Synthetic Chemistry deals with the studies of synthesizing compounds. The design and preparation of these new compounds leads to numerous applications in pharmaceuticals, materials, detection, energy utilization and storage, and insights into biological systems. Synthesis of new catalysts is used to find more efficient ways to mass-produce the compounds that support our standard of living, and to prepare new variants that could not previously be imagined. Synthetic chemistry spans from the tethering of biomolecules together, to the preparation of natural products, to the creation of metal complexes in new environments. This session discusses more about synthetic chemistry.
Clinical chemistry is also known as chemical pathology, clinical biochemistry lab or medical biochemistry deals with the studies in the area of chemistry that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. It is an applied form of biochemistry. Clinical chemistry involves all biochemical tests under chemical pathology, which are performed on any kind of body fluid, but mostly on serum or plasma. Serum is the yellow watery part of blood that is left after blood has been allowed to clot and all blood cells have been removed. This is most easily done by centrifugation, which packs the denser blood cells and platelets to the bottom of the centrifuge tube, leaving the liquid serum fraction resting above the packed cells. There are now many blood tests and clinical urine tests with extensive diagnostic capabilities. Over the years, clinical chemistry has come up of age and has advanced with the use and measurement of enzyme activities, spectrophotometry, electrophoresis, and immunoassay. This session discusses more about clinical chemistry.
Multi-disciplinary chemistry involves all branches of chemistry and its subfields like pharmaceutical, biological exercises of synthetic drugs, environmental chemistry, biochemistry, polymer chemistry, petroleum chemistry, and agricultural chemistry, polymer chemistry, and drug chemistry and so on. Multi-disciplinary chemistry involves fundamental and exploratory research through cooperation with other divisions/centers in ICR to establish a novel aspect of the advanced materials science. Higher order structures and their formation process of polymer systems are investigated by means of scattering methods neutron, x-ray and light scattering and microscopes optical, electron and atomic force microscope, to reveal the relationship between polymer properties and higher order structures. This session discusses more about multi-disciplinary chemistry.
Electrochemistry involves the study of electrical and chemical phenomena. It deals with the chemical processes that cause electrons to move in reaction from elements to elements to generate electricity. Electrochemistry plays a major role in our lives through the devices like throw-away batteries, electrochemical cells, rechargeable batteries, heavy batteries which rule the world of automotive to heavy industries run. Aluminium metals and products; chemical products like caustic soda, bleaching etc used in detergents, soaps and many other products are by electrochemistry. Even glucose sensor, which is used in diabetics are the product of electrochemical devices. This session discusses more about electrochemistry
Solid-State Organic Chemistry and Stereochemistry deal with the study of basic principles of solid state organic chemistry and its role and impact on pharmaceutical problems such as drug stability. Solid state organic chemistry generally emphasizes the study of crystalline solids because the geometric arrangement of molecules in the reacting solid can be determined. The known solid state organic reactions can be classified as either physical transformations or chemical reactions. Solid state reactions begin at one or more nucleation sites in the solid and spread through the crystal. Chemical reactions include solid-gas reaction, solid state photochemical reactions, solid state thermal reactions, solid-solid reactions etc. This session discusses more about stereochemistry and solid-state organic chemistry
Petroleum Chemistry is made of a mixture of different hydrocarbons. The most prolific hydrocarbons found in the chemistry of petroleum are alkanes or paraffins. these are also sometimes knows as branched or linear hydrocarbons. The paraffins are very pure hydrocarbons and contain only hydrogen and carbon; it is the alkanes which give petroleum chemistry its combustible nature. Depending upon the type of alkanes present in the raw petroleum chemistry it will be suitable for different applications. Petroleum chemistry contains several more complex hydrocarbons such as asphaltenes. A significant percentage of the remaining chemical compound is made up of aromatic hydrocarbons and cycloalkanes. This session discusses more about petroleum chemistry
Neurochemistry deals with the chemical processes that occur in the brain and nervous system. The fact that one is able to read this text and still remember what has been read; and breathe during the entire time that these events take place shows about the amazing chemistry that takes place in the human brain and the nerve cells with which it communicates. There are two broad categories of chemistry in nerve systems that are important. The first is the chemistry that generates electrical signals which propagate along nerve cells. The key chemicals involved in these signals are sodium and potassium ions. Enzymes that span the membrane can actively pump sodium and potassium ions from one side of the membrane to another. When the nerve cell is at rest, these mechanisms maintain a high potassium and low sodium environment inside the cell. This session discusses more about neurochemistry.
Plasma is an ionized gas, a gas into which sufficient energy is provided to free electrons from atoms or molecules and to allow species, ions and electrons, to coexist. Plasma is the fourth state of matter. Many places teach that there are three states of matter; solid, liquid and gas, but there are actually four. Plasmas are the most common state of matter in the universe. Plasma is a gas that has been energized to the point that some of the electrons break free from their nucleus, but travel with the nucleus. A spark in a gas will create plasma. Plasma torches like that are used in industry to cut metals. The biggest chunk of plasma you will see is the sun. The sun's massive heat rips electrons off the hydrogen and helium molecules that make up the sun. Surprisingly, the sun, like most stars, is a great big ball of plasma. This session discusses more about plasma chemistry.
Spectroscopy refers to a plethora of different techniques that employ radiation in order to obtain data on the structure and properties of matter. It deals with measuring and interpreting spectra that arise from the interaction of electromagnetic radiation which is a form of energy propagated in the form of electromagnetic waves with matter. It is concerned with the absorption, emission, or scattering of electromagnetic radiation by atoms or molecules. Spectroscopy solves a wide variety of analytical problems. The general goals of spectroscopy are to understand how exactly the light interacts with matter and in what way that information can be used to quantitatively understand certain samples. Spectroscopy as a set of tools can be employed together to understand different systems and to solve complex chemical problems. This session discusses more about spectroscopy.